Understanding Protein Absorption in Sports Nutrition

NOVA Sports Nutrition Protein

What’s the limit to protein absorption in a single meal, and how can meal balance impact performance? Let’s explore these concepts.

Protein Absorption Limit:

It’s important to recognize that the body’s capacity to absorb protein isn’t boundless. According to The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, consuming approximately 0.35 grams of protein per 1 pound of body weight per meal maximizes muscle protein synthesis (MPS). For instance, for someone weighing 165 pounds, this translates to roughly 60 grams of protein per meal.

Balancing Meals for Optimal Performance:

Even Distribution of Protein Intake

Rather than front-loading protein in one meal, aim for a consistent spread of protein across your daily meals and snacks. This approach ensures a steady supply of amino acids for muscle repair and growth throughout the day.

Pairing Protein with Carbohydrates

Combining protein with carbohydrates can enhance protein absorption and replenish glycogen stores, essential for sustained energy during workouts. Opt for complex carbohydrates like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables for sustained energy release.

Incorporating Healthy Fats

Healthy fats play a role in hormone production and nutrient absorption, contributing to overall performance and recovery. Include sources such as avocados, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish in your meals to support these functions.

Whole Foods Over Supplements

While protein supplements are convenient, whole food sources are often richer in nutrients and offer additional health benefits. Prioritize lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and tofu in your diet.

Hydration is Key

Adequate hydration supports digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall performance. Ensure you drink enough water throughout the day, particularly around your workout sessions.

Consider Timing

While the precise timing of protein intake isn’t critical, consuming protein-rich meals or snacks within a few hours of exercise can aid muscle repair and recovery.

In sports nutrition, understanding the dynamics of protein absorption and meal balance is crucial for achieving performance objectives. By strategically distributing protein intake, combining it with carbohydrates and healthy fats, and favoring whole food sources, you can optimize your nutrition regimen for enhanced athletic performance and recovery.

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Recognizing Eating Disorder Awareness Week

NOVA Eating disorder awareness week

As Eating Disorders Awareness Week approaches, it’s essential to shed light on the significance of recognizing, understanding, and supporting those affected by eating disorders. Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that can have profound effects on both physical and emotional well-being. In this blog post, we’ll explore the importance of raising awareness about eating disorders, discuss common signs and symptoms, and provide resources for support and recovery.

Why Eating Disorders Awareness Matters

Eating Disorders Awareness Week serves as an opportunity to educate the public about the prevalence and impact of eating disorders, challenge stigmas and misconceptions, and promote early intervention and access to treatment. By raising awareness, we can help those struggling with eating disorders feel seen, heard, and supported, and encourage open conversations about mental health and body image.

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms:

Eating disorders can manifest in various ways and may not always be obvious. Some common signs and symptoms to look out for include:

  • Obsession with food, calories, and weight
  • Severe restriction of food intake or excessive exercise
  • Preoccupation with body image and fear of weight gain
  • Binge eating episodes followed by feelings of guilt or shame
  • Withdrawal from social activities and avoidance of meals with others
  • Changes in mood, energy levels, and physical health

It’s essential to approach conversations about eating disorders with compassion, empathy, and non-judgment, and to encourage seeking professional help and support.

Sharing Concerns About and Eating Disorder

Sharing your concerns with a loved one or friend who may have an eating disorder is easier said than done; sometimes, affected people won’t be aware of the severity of their condition and may deny that a problem exists at all. NEDA (the National Eating Disorder Association) offers several helpful tips if you have a friend or family member who may be suffering from an eating disorder, some of which include:

  • Learn as much as you can about eating disorders so you can understand people’s thoughts and struggles with food
  • Know the difference between facts and myths in regards to nutrition and fitness to enable you to explain the discrepancy in the person’s behavior vs. what is considered healthy
  • Compliment them on qualities unrelated to their appearance (creativity, sense of humor, etc.)
  • Be honest about what your concerns are; never judge or criticize, but emphasize that you are worried and want to make sure they are healthy
  • Refer them to a dietitian or other health professional with expertise in treating eating disorders

At NOVA Sports Nutrition, we take a holistic, comprehensive approach to nutrition therapy with the goal of improving client relationships with food, exercise, and body image. For athletes with disordered eating or an eating disorder, we will focus on a healthy return to sport and work collaboratively with additional healthcare professionals as appropriate including athletic trainers, counselors, psychologists and physicians.

The goals of outpatient nutrition counseling include developing a regular eating routine that provides balanced nutrition and adequate energy to fuel performance and activities of daily living. Your dietitian will work with you to create a sustainable plan that gradually allows you to remove stress around eating and achieve freedom from negative thoughts related to food or exercise.

We provide nutrition counseling for the following conditions:

  • Disordered eating
  • Orthorexia
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge Eating Disorder
  • Avoidant-Restrictive Feeding and Intake Disorder (ARFID)

Treatment can be very effective in aiding recovery from eating disorders, but outcomes are significantly better when treatment is started early. If you have concerns, don’t brush them aside.

You can’t force someone to get treatment, but you never know who might be the positive influence that helps someone with an eating disorder address his or her situation. It could be you.

For more information, please see the links below:

ANAD.org
NationalEatingDisorders.org

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Heart-Healthy Fuel: Sports Nutrition Tips for American Heart Month

NOVA American Heart Month

February marks American Heart Month, a time to raise awareness about heart health and encourage individuals to take steps toward a healthier lifestyle. While exercise is crucial for cardiovascular health, nutrition plays an equally important role, especially for athletes looking to optimize their performance while keeping their hearts strong. In this blog post, we’ll explore how sports nutrition can support heart health and provide practical tips for fueling your body in a way that benefits both your athletic endeavors and your cardiovascular system.

The Heart-Healthy Diet Blueprint

A heart-healthy diet is rich in nutrient-dense foods that support cardiovascular health. Here’s a breakdown of key components:

  • Emphasize Plant-Based Foods: Load up on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. These foods are high in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, which help lower blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and improve heart health.
  • Choose Healthy Fats: Opt for sources of unsaturated fats, such as avocados, olive oil, nuts, and fatty fish like salmon and trout. These fats can help lower LDL cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • Limit Saturated and Trans Fats: Cut back on foods high in saturated and trans fats, such as fried foods, processed meats, and commercially baked goods. These fats can raise LDL cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Watch Your Sodium Intake: Limit your intake of sodium by avoiding processed and packaged foods and opting for fresh, whole foods instead. High sodium intake can contribute to high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart disease.
  • Stay Hydrated: Proper hydration is essential for heart health. Aim to drink plenty of water throughout the day, especially during exercise, to keep your cardiovascular system functioning optimally.

Sports Nutrition Strategies for Heart Health

Incorporating heart-healthy nutrition practices into your sports nutrition routine can benefit both your athletic performance and your cardiovascular health. Here are some practical tips to help you fuel your body while supporting your heart:

  • Balance Macronutrients: Aim for a balanced diet that includes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in appropriate proportions. Choose complex carbohydrates, lean proteins, and healthy fats to provide sustained energy and support muscle repair and recovery.
  • Prioritize Whole Foods: Focus on consuming whole, minimally processed foods whenever possible. These foods are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals that support heart health and overall well-being.
  • Include Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Incorporate sources of omega-3 fatty acids, such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and walnuts, into your diet. Omega-3s have been shown to reduce inflammation, lower triglyceride levels, and improve heart health.
  • Be Mindful of Portions: Pay attention to portion sizes, especially when it comes to calorie-dense foods like nuts, seeds, and oils. Moderation is key to maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of heart disease.
  • Listen to Your Body: Tune in to your body’s hunger and fullness cues, and eat mindfully to avoid overeating. Fuel your body with the nutrients it needs to perform at its best while respecting your body’s natural signals.

As we celebrate American Heart Month, let’s remember the importance of nourishing our bodies with heart-healthy foods that support both our athletic performance and our cardiovascular health. By incorporating these sports nutrition tips into your routine, you can fuel your body effectively while keeping your heart strong and healthy for years to come. Here’s to a heart-healthy February and beyond!

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From Inner Critic to Inner Cheerleader – Practice Self-Compassion

NOVA sports nutrition self compassion

Self-compassion is the practice of showing yourself the same compassion you would show someone you care about, especially in difficult moments when you make mistakes or experience failure. Self-compassion allows us to recognize our limitations while showing kindness as we work through the difficult times.

Self-care is the practice of doing things to take care of your mind, body, and soul by engaging in activities that promote well-being and reduce stress. It can serve as a reminder to yourself and others that your needs are priority. Below are some examples of different areas of health and ways to practice self-care in each:

  1. Physical Health: getting regular and adequate sleep, as well as moving daily are some examples. 
  2. Emotional Health: being self-compassionate, listening to music, taking naps, journaling and taking time to laugh are great ways to boost your emotional health.
  3. Spiritual Health refers to seeking ways to find comfort, inner peace and purpose in life.  Some ways to practice are praying, practicing yoga, meditating, singing, and developing a gratitude practice.
  4. Social Health encourages connection to the people around you and helps show your ability to adjust to social situations.  You can improve your social health by being present in all circumstances, planning an outing with friends, cooking with your family, or joining a community group.
  5. Intellectual Health encourages creativity by stimulating mental activities.  Some ways to practice include playing board games, painting, reading, visiting a museum or doing a puzzle
NOVA sports nutrition self compassion

Emotional Health 

  • Practice Positive Self-Talk
    • I am enough
    • I am capable
    • I can do this
    • Its ok to make a mistake
    • Find humor in your day
    • I think I can …. becomes I know I can
  • Journaling
    • Who or What inspires you?
    • I am thankful for ….
    • Make a gratitude list
    • This week was great because ….
    • Write an encouraging letter to yourself

Physical Health

  • Nature Walk
  • Take a 10-minute stretch break during the work day
  • Get adequate sleep
  • Try a new exercise class 
  • Spend time outside soaking up the sun and taking deep breaths

Social Health 

  • Do something fun
  • Cook a new meal with family
  • Try a new activity with friends
  • Dance to a favorite song
  • Paint or Color

Spiritual Health

  • Meditate/Pray
  • Yoga/Stretch
  • Listen to your favorite music
  • Sing your favorite song
  • Enjoy playing a musical instrument

Intellectual Health

  • Board game lunch hour with colleagues
  • Read a book on a rainy day
  • Visit a museum
  • Visit a local battlefield
  • Do a puzzle with family member

Which areas self-care or self-compassion do you want to focus on? We recommend picking at least one positive behavior from above to engage in daily. Share in the comment section which one you chose!

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A Complete List of Grocery Shopping Staples

grocery shopping

For many people, grocery shopping can feel like a chore. If you have a busy schedule, it’s difficult to fit in time for grocery shopping during the week. Additionally, not everyone has the time to prepare three meals and snacks during the day while attending school and/or working. Whether you order groceries online or make one to two larger trips to the grocery store each week, this expansive list of grocery staples will make daily meal preparation so much easier. If you prefer to meal prep, there will be some tips on how to buy enough ingredients to last the whole week!

A healthy and balanced diet doesn’t exclude food groups or macronutrients entirely. Each week you should make sure that your grocery cart includes items from each of the three macronutrient categories: carbs, proteins, and fats.  While it’s important to purchase foods that will nourish and satisfy you, such as high quality protein sources and produce, you should also allow yourself to purchase foods that you might consider as ‘treats’ or ‘fun foods.’ Grocery shopping doesn’t have to be boring and should bring some excitement into your life!

Note: If you’re someone who meal preps at the start of each week, try choosing a few different breakfast, lunch, and dinner recipes instead of eating the same exact meal everyday. Adding some variety into your meals, even if you cook ahead of time, will ensure that you’ll actually want to eat what you’re meal prepping. 

 

Carbohydrates 

Carbohydrates are our first macronutrient category. Carbs are often demonized by diet culture, but in reality carbs are the body’s main source of energy and should be incorporated in every meal. If you’re especially busy, choosing carb sources that are higher in fiber is a great way to feel more satiated after meals. 

  • Bread – While everyone has a personal preference on what type of bread they prefer, sprouted and whole grain bread often has a higher fiber content and a little extra protein than traditional white bread. If you prefer to buy loaves of bread, cut the loaf into slices and place the slices in a bag in the freezer to prevent the bread from going stale. 
  • Pasta – Pasta is a great ingredient to meal prep at the start of the week because it can be eaten in a cold pasta salad or can be heated with marinara sauce, grilled vegetables, and a protein source. Chickpea or lentil pasta is a great product that’s high in protein and great for anyone on the go. 
  • Grains – Rice, quinoa, couscous, farro, the list goes on! Grains are a great carb source that pair well with a variety of cuisines. Farro and quinoa are also high in protein which is an added bonus for vegans and vegetarians who might need some help in that department. 
  • Tortillas and wraps – Tortillas, wraps, and pitas are great to have on hand during the week. Use corn tortillas for tacos, pair wraps with egg salad, and snack on pita with hummus during the day!
  • Oatmeal – Oatmeal is a staple breakfast item that can have so many flavor opportunities. Place oats, milk, chia seeds, and any other add-ons of choice (berries, cocoa powder, cinnamon) in a jar in the fridge overnight. Now you have overnight oats to eat in the morning without worrying about prep time!

 

Proteins

Protein not only helps you feel satiated but is so important for muscle growth and cell repair. If you lift weights or follow a resistance training program, a diet with adequate protein helps to build up the muscles that are recruited during training. 

  • For meat eaters – Lean meats such as ground turkey, chicken breast, and fish are great protein options to make during the week. If you prefer to not cook meat, check your freezer aisle for pre-cooked proteins that can easily be reheated and added to any meal.
  • Eggs – Use eggs in breakfast scrambles during the week or buy hardboiled eggs for sandwiches, egg salad, or a convenient snack.
  • Vegan/Vegetarian options –  Canned beans, tofu, tempeh, frozen edamame, and veggie burgers are convenient ways for non-meat eaters to get in their daily protein. Try not to rely on meat substitutes that might contain fillers and additives.
  • Yogurt – Yogurt, such as Greek yogurt, can be a very high protein snack. Add yogurt into fruit smoothies for an extra protein boost in the morning. 

 

Fats

If you have difficulty feeling full after meals, you might not have enough fat in your diet. 

  • Seeds – Adding in chia seeds and flaxseeds into your meals is a great way to get in your omega-3s. Prepare a batch of chia seed pudding for the week or add in a tablespoon into your morning oats or yogurt. 
  • Avocado – Avocado really goes with anything and is a great substitute for mayonnaise. Add mashed avocado into a turkey sandwich or tuna salad. 
  • Nuts – Nuts contain important minerals and healthy fats to keep our energy up during the day. Any variety of nut you prefer will work, but walnuts are an especially good source of omega-3’s.
  • Avocado/olive oil – Avocado oil is great for cooking food at high temperatures, while olive oil is excellent for lower temperatures or for mixing with vinegar and herbs for a homemade salad dressing.
  • Nut butter – Any variety of nut butter will do, but make sure you are looking for a simple list of ingredients: nuts, oil, and salt (optional).

 

Produce

While it is best to buy produce that is seasonal, local, and/or organic, this is not accessible to everyone and can often be expensive. If you worry about produce spoiling in your fridge, stock up on a few bags of frozen veggies and fruit just in case! Frozen produce can also be significantly cheaper. 

  • Spinach – Get your greens in by adding in a handful of spinach into meals when you can. Spinach pairs well with almost everything from egg scrambles to pasta to stir fry!
  • Bananas – Bananas are the perfect pre-workout snack but taste great in smoothies, oatmeal, and cereal bowls!
  • Berries – Blueberries are high in antioxidants. Top off yogurt bowls with a handful of berries or use frozen berries in smoothies for a thicker consistency.

Bell peppers, zucchinis and mushrooms are a few other vegetables that are used in a variety of dishes and cuisines making them great vegetables to have on hand. Choosing three to four different vegetables and two to three fruits when you go grocery shopping ensures that you’ll have a wide variety of produce for meals during the week.

While the items listed above are staple items, don’t forget to purchase beverages such as milk (dairy or plant milk), snacks, dips and sauces, and dessert items. Grocery shopping should be fun and inspire you to try new items and recipes! Need ideas for recipes? Check out our blog post on no-cook meals you can make anywhere (even in a dorm!).

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5 Key Changes You Need to Know About the Nutrition Facts Label

nutrition facts label

Have You Noticed the New Look of the Nutrition Facts Label on Packaged Food Products?

new label on all commercially packaged food items.

Figure 2https://www.fda.gov/media/97999/download

The FDA announced the nutrition facts label changes in 2016, but it gave food companies until 2020 and 2021 to make the changes. Companies with 10 million dollars in annual sales had until January of 2020 to make the changes. Companies with less than 10 million dollars in annual sales had until January of 2021.

Why Was the Label Redesigned?

The old label was over 20 years old and over time the nutrition guidelines have changed. The FDA believes the new label design will help consumers make better food choices.

What are the Changes to the Label?

  1. “Calories” and “Serving Size” have a Bigger, Bolder Font and “Calories from Fat” is Now Gone.

As you can see, the font size is now bigger for the words “calories,” “servings per container,” and “serving size.” These words are also bolded to draw your attention to them.

Calories from fat is no longer required. Current dietary guidelines focus on the type of fat that is in food rather than the total amount. Studies show that diets high in saturated fat and trans fat can lead to heart disease (1). Foods high in saturated fat include some dairy products, meat, and palm oil and coconut oil. Foods high in trans fat include baked goods, snack goods, and stick margarine. Healthier fats include unsaturated fats such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Good sources of monounsaturated fats include avocados, almonds, peanuts, soft margarine, and canola, peanut, and olive oil. Good sources of polyunsaturated fats are salmon, walnuts, pine nuts, and corn, soybean, and sunflower oils. Eating healthier types of fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, can reduce the risk of developing heart disease (2) when they are eaten in place of saturated fats.

How to Use the Food Label to Identify Types of Fat in Food:

identifying Types of Fat in Food

Figure 3 Peapod.com

Let’s compare the type of fat in walnuts versus cheddar cheese. The walnuts have a high amount of total fat (20g), but most of it is healthy polyunsaturated fat (14g). They have low levels of saturated fat (2g) and trans fat (0g).

  • Nutrition Lesson: Walnuts are a healthy snack in moderation. Pre-portion walnuts to ¼ cup servings to stay on track with your nutrition goals.

The cheese sticks have less total fat per serving than the walnuts. They have 7g per serving rather than 20g per serving. However, one cheese stick has 4.5g saturated fat or 22% of the total daily value for saturated fat. The saturated fat in the walnuts is only 10% of the total daily value for saturated fat.

  • Nutrition Lesson: Choose low-fat cheese as a snack. Regular cheese is one of the most common sources of saturated fat in the diet (3)

 

  1. Serving Sizes Are More Realistic.

Amounts listed on food labels now reflect the quantity of food that today’s consumers are eating. Serving sizes were originally developed in 1993. The amounts that people eat of certain foods has changed since then. It is important to note that the serving size on a food package is not a recommendation of how much to eat. Rather, it demonstrates how portions have gotten larger with time.

The FDA knows that certain smaller pack sizes of foods are usually eaten in one sitting. Many packages of chips, ice cream, and soda, now show both calories per serving and calories per package.

snack size servings have changed

Figure 4 https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/food-serving-sizes-get-reality-check

Below is a bag of chips that shows both numbers. Although it appears to be a “snack size,” since it is only 2oz, it has two servings per bag. The entire bag is 270 calories which may be more than what you want to consume for a snack.

 

Ritz crackers nutrition facts

Figure 5 https://www.cvs.com/shop/ritz-cheese-crispers-cheddar-crackers-2-oz-prodid-321743
  • Nutrition Lesson: One package of food may contain more than one serving. Be aware of the serving sizes of packaged food items to stay on track with your nutrition goals.

 

  1. The Required Vitamins and Minerals on the Label Have Changed.

The original label listed the vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron content of food. The new label lists the vitamin D, calcium, iron, and potassium content in food. Why were vitamin D and potassium added, and vitamin A and C dropped?

The original version of the nutrition facts label is from the 1990s. During that time, many American diets were deficient in vitamin A and vitamin C. This is no longer the case. Currently, many American diets are deficient in vitamin D and potassium. Low levels of vitamin D can lead to poor bone health. Low levels of potassium can lead to high blood pressure. Thus, the FDA changed the label to reflect these changes in the population.

  • Nutrition lesson: Choose foods with higher amounts of vitamin D, potassium, calcium, and iron. This can reduce your risk of chronic diseases (5).

 

  1. The Actual Amounts of Vitamins and Minerals in a Serving Size are Now Listed.

The label now shows the actual amount of the vitamin or mineral in micrograms (mcg) or milligrams (mg). The percent (%) Daily Value (DV) is also shown. The DV of a nutrient tells us the recommended amount to consume daily or not to exceed. The %DV tells us how much of a nutrient in a food serving contributes to one’s daily goals. Having the actual amount of the vitamin or mineral makes it easier to keep track of your nutrient goals.

Soy milk nutrition label

Figure 6 https://www.pinterest.com/cspinutrition/

The updated recommended DV for calcium is now 1300mg per day (the original DV was 1000mg per day) (5). Yet, it is not recommended to consume more than 500mg of calcium at a time. The body cannot absorb more than this amount of calcium at once. Thus, it is helpful to see the number of mg of calcium in the food you are consuming. This nutrition facts label from a container of soy milk shows that one cup contains 300mg of calcium or 25% DV. A DV% greater than 20% also tells us this drink is an excellent source of calcium. You could drink 3 cups of soy milk throughout the day and have 900mg towards your goal of 1300mg per day.

  • Nutrition Lesson: 5% DV or less of a nutrient per serving is considered 20% DV or more of a nutrient per serving is considered high.

  1. The New Label Shows the Amount of Added Sugar in a Serving Size.

 

This number of grams of added sugar identifies foods that had sugar added during processing. Added sugar adds calories or energy, but not vitamins or minerals. Foods that naturally contain sugar, like fruit or milk, also contain important nutrients. These nutrients include vitamins, minerals, and fiber (for fruits). That is why the DV for added sugars is 50g per day based on a 2,000-calorie diet (6), but there is no DV for total sugar. Eating a lot of foods with added sugar makes it hard to meet your nutrient needs and calorie goals.

The picture below shows a sports drink with a large amount of added sugar. There are 29g of added sugar per bottle. If you play sports or exercise for 90 minutes or more at a time, drinking a sports drink may help you with endurance. Your body converts the added sugar in the drink to energy it needs to perform the activity. If you are less active and you drink a lot of sports drinks instead of water, your body could store this extra energy as fat.

 

Gatorade nutrition facts

Figure 7 Peapod.com
  • Nutrition Lesson: Drink water for hydration. Save the sports drinks for exercise or competitions that last longer than 90 minutes.

 

Summary

You can use the new food label to make more informed and better food choices. For more information on the other components of the food label, visit this site. FDA Interactive Nutrition Facts Label. It has an interactive tool that teaches about all the sections on the food label.

In general, choose foods with higher amounts of fiber, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and potassium. Limit foods that are higher in saturated fat, sodium, and added sugars. Choosing healthier foods can reduce your risk of many chronic diseases.

Have questions on how to read food labels to meet your nutrition needs? Leave a comment or reach out on the contact page!

 

References

  1. Ellis, R. (n.d.). The Basics of the Nutrition Facts Label. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.eatright.org/food/nutrition/nutrition-facts-and-food-labels/the-basics-of-the-nutrition-facts-label
  2. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2020, June 29). The New Nutrition Facts Label. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.fda.gov/food/nutrition-education-resources-materials/new-nutrition-facts-label
  3. Levin, S. (2020, June 23). 5 Top Sources of Heartbreaking Saturated Fat. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.pcrm.org/news/blog/5-top-sources-heartbreaking-saturated-fat
  4. Office of the Commissioner. (2016, July 07). Food Serving Sizes Get a Reality Check. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/food-serving-sizes-get-reality-check
  5. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2021, January 04). Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.fda.gov/food/food-labeling-nutrition/changes-nutrition-facts-label
  6. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2020, March 11). Added Sugars on the New Nutrition Facts Label. Retrieved January 17, 2021, from https://www.fda.gov/food/new-nutrition-facts-label/added-sugars-new-nutrition-facts-label

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